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Italic and Latin civilization

The construction of the megalithic fortified villages, that defended the rises and the pastures, dates back to the beginning of the Italic civilization (9th–6th centuries BC). From the 6th century BC to the 6th century AD populations that lived around Majella organize their villages following a republican type called touta (similar to the Latin civitas). Peoples who created this culture are: Peligni, Marrucini, Carricini and Pentri. Some villages rose around the Majella massif: Corfinium, Sulmo, Interpromium, Cluviae, Iuvanum and for Pentri people, Aufidena. There were many sanctuaries dedicated to Ercole Curino, the god of strength, like the one at the foot of Morrone, near Sulmona.

From the 3rd century AD these populations gradually adopted the Roman ways. Their last strong opposition against Rome was the “social war”, from 91 to 88 AD, when the city of Corfinium became the Confederation capital with the name of Italica. In the Roman context Italic cities grew in importance. The sheep farming and the road network improved.

The final unification of the peninsular territories promoted the horizontal transhumance: the cattle-tracks network, also called calles, was improved and used until the beginning of the 20th century. The road network was stabilized too. The main route was the so-called Tiburtina-Claudia-Valeria, that joined Rome to Hostia Aterni (Pescara) passing through Alba Fucens, Corfinium, Interpromium and Teate. This transversal route crossed the longitudinal one, formed by the Claudia Nova route, starting from Amiternum and reaching Interpromium, and by the route that started from Corfinium and reached Aufidena, passing through Sulmo.

During the last years of the imperial age Vici and Pagi villages rose around the Majella massif and the praedial toponyms, such as Bolognano (from fundum Belonianum, etc), Scagnano, Trovigliano and Cusano prove this phenomenon. All these villages rose in the Orta and Lavino valley, where the mining activities of chalk and bitumen also grew.   

Image of the site Ocriticum in Cansano cave paintings of Morrone
Image of the Temple of Hercules in Sulmona Curino
Image of the Roman aqueduct of Sulmona
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